Ekine, the Dancing People, and Water Spirits

There are times when Collecting African Tribal Art is full of mystical, and historical/cultural perspectives. Finding an Ijo “water spirit” mask, is always one of those times.

 

E1 Ijo - Water Spirit mask

On the west coast of Africa, to the south of Nigeria, in the delta region, there is a tribe known as the Ijo. The Ijo style of carving has not succumbed to the Yoruba style primarily because of the proximity of the rivers, swamp, and ocean that frame the life and culture of the Ijo. The powerful Ekine (also known as Sekiapu, meaning “dancing people” in Ijo)[1] society of the Ijo maintains its style alongside alongside Yoruba traditions of the Oshugbo, or Ogboni society.  The main dance group of Ekine is the Agbo, or Magbo, society. The mask shown below belongs to this group, and is one of three used with antelope and bush-cow representations.

 

E2 Mask (igodo) - Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY

The Kalabari (an Ijoid ethnic group)[2] legend tells of the abduction of Ekineba,

“a beautiful young woman of a delta town, by the dancing water spirits. Ekineba was taken to their home beneath the creeks. The mother of the water spirits was angry at what they had done, and commanded her children to take Ekineba back to the land of men. Before returning her however each spirit showed her its special play; and when she returned home, she taught the people all the plays she had seen. The plays became very popular and were constantly performed. But the young men found it difficult to obey a certain rule which the water spirits had imposed on her – namely that whenever her people put on one of her plays, she must always be the first to beat the drum. After they had disobeyed this rule three times, the water spirits lost patience and took Ekineba away for good. Since then, men have taken her as the patron goddess of the masquerade; and the Ekine Society which organizes its performance is named after her.”[3]

Water Spirit Mask

This Ekine myth has parallels with other divination myths where teachings are rendered by a local hero who lives with men, but who disappears leaving no descendants when men disobey the rules laid down. [4]


[1] Yoruba, Sculpture of West Africa. William Fagg, et al. , pg.39

E1 AplusAfricanArt Gallery

E2 Yoruba, Sculpture of West Africa. William Fagg, et al. , pg.39

[3] The Kalabari Ekine Society, Robin Horton, 1963

[4] The Kalabari Ekine Society, Robin Horton, 1963

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African Tribes, Demographics, & The Slave Trade Map

Information on African Tribes – Demographics, Politics, Religion, History, Economy, Tribal Art, Neighboring Tribes, Culture, Language.

Aka Akan Akuapem Akye Anyi Aowin
Asante Babanki Baga Bali Bamana Bamileke
Bamum Bangubangu Bangwa Baule Beembe Bembe
Benin Kingdom Berber (Amazigh) Bete Bidyogo Biombo Bobo
Bushoong Bwa Cameroon Grasslands Chokwe Dan Dengese
Diomande Djenn� Dogon Ejagham Eket Ekoi
Esie Fang Fante Fon Frafra Fulani
Guro Hausa Hemba Holoholo Ibibio Idoma
Igala Igbira Igbo Igbo Ukwu Ijo Kabre
Karagwe Kassena Katana Kom Kongo Kota
Kuba Kurumba Kusu Kwahu Kwele Kwere
Laka Lega Lobi Luba Luchazi Luluwa
Lunda Luvale Lwalwa Maasai Makonde Mambila
Mangbetu Manja Marka Mbole Mende Mitsogo
Mossi Mumuye Namji (Dowayo) Ngbaka Nkanu Nok
Nuna Nunuma (Gurunsi) Ogoni Oron Owo Pende
Pokot Punu Salampasu San Sapi Senufo
Shambaa Shona Songo Songye Suku Swahili
Tabwa Tuareg Urhobo We Winiama Wodaabe
Wolof Woyo Wum Yaka Yaure Yombe
Yoruba Zaramo Zulu

 

Destinations of Slaves and their Origins

PROJECTED EXPORTS OF THAT PORTION OF THE FRENCH AND ENGLISH SLAVE TRADE HAVING IDENTIFIABLE REGION OF COAST ORIGIN IN AFRICA, 1711-1810. [1]
 
Senegambia (Senegal-Gambia) * 5.8%
Sierra Leone 3.4%
Windward Coast (Ivory Coast) * 12.1%
Gold Coast (Ghana) * 14.4%
Bight of Benin (Nigeria) * 14.5
Bight of Biafra (Nigeria) * 25.1%
Central and Southeast Africa (Cameroon-N. Angola) * 24.7%
SENEGAMBIA: Wolof, Mandingo, Malinke, Bambara, Papel, Limba, Bola, Balante, Serer, Fula, Tucolor
 
SIERRA LEONE: Temne, Mende, Kisi, Goree, Kru.
 
WINDWARD COAST (including Liberia): Baoule, Vai, De, Gola (Gullah), Bassa, Grebo.
 
GOLD COAST: Ewe, Ga, Fante, Ashante, Twi, Brong
 
BIGHT OF BENIN & BIGHT OF BIAFRA combined: Yoruba, Nupe, Benin, Dahomean (Fon), Edo-Bini, Allada, Efik, Lbibio, Ljaw, Lbani, Lgbo (Calabar)
 
CENTRAL & SOUTHEAST AFRICA: BaKongo, MaLimbo, Ndungo, BaMbo, BaLimbe, BaDongo, Luba, Loanga, Ovimbundu, Cabinda, Pembe, Imbangala, Mbundu, BaNdulunda
 
Other possible groups that maybe should be included as a “Ancestral group” of African Americans:
 
Fulani, Tuareg, Dialonke, Massina, Dogon, Songhay, Jekri, Jukun, Domaa, Tallensi, Mossi, Nzima, Akwamu, Egba, Fang, and Ge.

References

[1] http://wysinger.homestead.com/mapofafricadiaspora.html

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