Clouds, Silver Linings, and the Kongoli.

One of the benefits of Collecting Tribal African Art is simply gaining exposure to the diversity of cultural knowledge associated with the tribes, and masks.

The day did not begin well. Today (01/12/14) marked the second consecutive auction where I missed placing a bid on a mask that seemed interesting. It was advertised as a Kongoli from the Mende culture in Sierra Leone – I had never come across this type of mask (or so I thought), but accessing the auction mere minutes after the mask was sold seemed unbelievably unlucky. In an auction in December I missed an Igala mask (gutting) because I fell asleep after shoveling snow. So, on the bright side I decided to read up on the Kongoli mask, and I’m sure glad I did. Apart from being a funny mask, from a tribe with a great masking tradition, I realized I actually had one in my collection. It had been mis-categorized as belonging to the Bamum tribe, from the Cameroon.

Kongoli (previously attributed to Bamum)

Kongoli (previously attributed to Bamum)

Cue the silver lining. It absolutely turned my day around, but there’s another side to this that blew me away. Modern society is becoming increasingly paralyzed by political correctness. The Kongoli is in truth and fact “the village clown”, and as the following video demonstrates sometimes entertainment is simply entertaining.

The short video documentary below, by Bill Hart (University of Ulster), examines the role of the Kongoli/Gongoli mask in Sierra Leone culture. The first 22 secs are classic





Gongoli Description (from the Yale University Art Gallery eCatalogue)

Kongoli (Gongoli) Mask [E1]

Kongoli (Gongoli) Mask [E1]


“Ugly! This is the reaction that the Mende audience has when seeing this mask in performance. The uglier, the better. The function of the Gongoli performance is to show the worst side of human nature: deformed, disheveled, chaotic, undisciplined, deceptive, and antisocial. The mask is worn with a hideous costume of dead leaves and rags. The movements of the performer are disjointed, erratic, awkward?and amusing. Gongoli masks are usually owned by private individuals and may appear at any celebration.”


[E1] Photo Credit to Yale University Art Gallery eCatalogue
http://ecatalogue.art.yale.edu/detail.htm?objectId=84527

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African Tribes, Demographics, & The Slave Trade Map

Information on African Tribes – Demographics, Politics, Religion, History, Economy, Tribal Art, Neighboring Tribes, Culture, Language.

Aka Akan Akuapem Akye Anyi Aowin
Asante Babanki Baga Bali Bamana Bamileke
Bamum Bangubangu Bangwa Baule Beembe Bembe
Benin Kingdom Berber (Amazigh) Bete Bidyogo Biombo Bobo
Bushoong Bwa Cameroon Grasslands Chokwe Dan Dengese
Diomande Djenn� Dogon Ejagham Eket Ekoi
Esie Fang Fante Fon Frafra Fulani
Guro Hausa Hemba Holoholo Ibibio Idoma
Igala Igbira Igbo Igbo Ukwu Ijo Kabre
Karagwe Kassena Katana Kom Kongo Kota
Kuba Kurumba Kusu Kwahu Kwele Kwere
Laka Lega Lobi Luba Luchazi Luluwa
Lunda Luvale Lwalwa Maasai Makonde Mambila
Mangbetu Manja Marka Mbole Mende Mitsogo
Mossi Mumuye Namji (Dowayo) Ngbaka Nkanu Nok
Nuna Nunuma (Gurunsi) Ogoni Oron Owo Pende
Pokot Punu Salampasu San Sapi Senufo
Shambaa Shona Songo Songye Suku Swahili
Tabwa Tuareg Urhobo We Winiama Wodaabe
Wolof Woyo Wum Yaka Yaure Yombe
Yoruba Zaramo Zulu

 

Destinations of Slaves and their Origins

PROJECTED EXPORTS OF THAT PORTION OF THE FRENCH AND ENGLISH SLAVE TRADE HAVING IDENTIFIABLE REGION OF COAST ORIGIN IN AFRICA, 1711-1810. [1]
 
Senegambia (Senegal-Gambia) * 5.8%
Sierra Leone 3.4%
Windward Coast (Ivory Coast) * 12.1%
Gold Coast (Ghana) * 14.4%
Bight of Benin (Nigeria) * 14.5
Bight of Biafra (Nigeria) * 25.1%
Central and Southeast Africa (Cameroon-N. Angola) * 24.7%
SENEGAMBIA: Wolof, Mandingo, Malinke, Bambara, Papel, Limba, Bola, Balante, Serer, Fula, Tucolor
 
SIERRA LEONE: Temne, Mende, Kisi, Goree, Kru.
 
WINDWARD COAST (including Liberia): Baoule, Vai, De, Gola (Gullah), Bassa, Grebo.
 
GOLD COAST: Ewe, Ga, Fante, Ashante, Twi, Brong
 
BIGHT OF BENIN & BIGHT OF BIAFRA combined: Yoruba, Nupe, Benin, Dahomean (Fon), Edo-Bini, Allada, Efik, Lbibio, Ljaw, Lbani, Lgbo (Calabar)
 
CENTRAL & SOUTHEAST AFRICA: BaKongo, MaLimbo, Ndungo, BaMbo, BaLimbe, BaDongo, Luba, Loanga, Ovimbundu, Cabinda, Pembe, Imbangala, Mbundu, BaNdulunda
 
Other possible groups that maybe should be included as a “Ancestral group” of African Americans:
 
Fulani, Tuareg, Dialonke, Massina, Dogon, Songhay, Jekri, Jukun, Domaa, Tallensi, Mossi, Nzima, Akwamu, Egba, Fang, and Ge.

References

[1] http://wysinger.homestead.com/mapofafricadiaspora.html

My Tribal African Art Vibe

It’s amazing… I picked up one piece, and now I have to admit the apartment is literally crawling with African Tribal Art . They have settled into their own groups… adhering to the ‘melting pot’ philosophy of American lore yet strangely dominating my small universe in their own unique ways. Collecting Tribal African Art is turning out to be both fun and instructive. There are many important  values and norms one can distill from the tribal cultures.

Bambara Maternity Statues

Bambara - Maternity Statues

Maternity

The Bambara maternity statues offer peaceful, even tranquil backdrops of mothers with children playing on their laps. Their poised beautiful faces, on slender necks, slim figures with slight postnatal curves evoke a sense of definitive idealism.  Who would not want to recreate the peaceful scenes?  In start contrast the Baga Nimba is large and domineering, the first figure facing the door, the large head, almost an arm wide, with heavy breasts and braided plaits signifying a mature fertile woman who has had children. This represents the maternal feature of motherhood, the eagle watching over her brood and promising times of plenty. If hope grows the contrast in size is well reflected in the group of Aku’ba dolls from the Ashante Tribe of Ghana.

Ashanti Akua'ba dolls

The legend of Akua and solving the riddle of her barrenness using her doll is now interwoven with the myth of producing progeny of beauty and grace.

Teaching

The Mumuye tribe of Nigeria produce sculpture called iagalagana which represent tutelary spirits and which offer an aesthetic abstract form that truly fascinates, incorporating a high degree of heterogeneity.

Mumuye Tribe - Iagalagana

‘They seem to be reminders of living together in a multicultural society, one were we are enough alike to be able to speak to one another, yet different enough for everyone to have something to say.’  [1]

Mende, Sowei Mask : "The Renewed Spirit rising from the water"

Not to be outdone , the Sowei mask, from the Mende of Sierra Leone is the maternal disciplinarian – representing the  passage from adolescence to adulthood, and the rebirth in a more developed value system with higher expectations, and greater responsibility.

Luck

Nikisi - Protection against "Bad Luck"

The rabbit feet of Tribal African Art would be the Nikisi from the Kongo Tribe. The startling images of upraised hands and nail impaled bodies were used to keep away sickness, bad luck, misfortune, bind promises, and repel evil spirits. One can never have too many.

Reliquaries

From the Mahongye, to the Kota, to the Fang the reliquaries were used to guard the remains of ancestors. To the nomadic tribes this was important since their link to the past is the thread that held the value systems in the communities on a consistent footing through the years. The abstract nature of their sculpture, developed perhaps by a need to conserve space, resulted both in beautiful works, and a holistic representation of social concepts.

Fang Tribe, Bieri sculpture

I particularly admire the Fang representation of the “Balance of Opposites” – using the proportions of a child whilst representing a strong powerfully built adult; showing power yet at the same time exhibiting calm. Forces we wrestle with on a daily basis, even today.

Scrooge, Michael Vick, and Redemption.

I’m not happy for Michael Vick. Why should I be? He makes his, he got his, and with half a brain and an ounce of luck, his finances will be fine. I wish him well… Bah! Humbug!

That said i do feel a touch of delirium coming on. What i am happy about goes way beyond watching MV rip and shred the Giants to a sputtering mass of bewildered looks, and irrational apoligetics. I finally understand that the melting pot of America does not start in the corridors of power, the halls of hallowed cathedrals, nor the voting booth. There are seminal moments in music, art, and sport that change our conditioned prejudices, our clinging debilitating favoritisms, and allow us to have fun together, unite, and move falteringly toward the promise of this great nation.

Mende, Sowei Mask : "The Renewed Spirit rising from the water"

There are stories of redemption and forgiveness that transcend our narrow-minded views of right and wrong. A goose-bump giving essence that rattles our stereotyped views and renders the limits of our moral and ethical logic to so much mush as we reconsider the impossibility of the Eagles comeback in the last seven minutes on 121910. These are the stories that shrivel moats of genteel etiquette, pedicured mannerisms, and hoarded wealth.

Maybe we wouldn’t last a minute on a football field, but here’s hoping that we can each bring to our daily lives a little of the heart, hunger, and preserverance that MV and his teammates continue to display in their fascinating run to the 2010 Superbowl.

CARBOHYDRATES , SALT, and the 825 lb OBESITY GORILLA

In the US the difference between the Prevalence of Obesity (POB)[1], in Black men and Black women (just taking the statistics at face value) is a full 7.6 percentage points (pps). In Whites the men are ahead by 3.6 pps, while in Hispanics the women are ahead by some 1.6 pps.  There is absolutely no good news here for the African American Community.  The POB for Blacks (M & F) outstrip Whites by 12 pps and Hispanics by 7 pps.  A cultural distinction is that some Black women tend toward the Mende ideal of feminine beauty, while some White males tend toward the benevolent Marlon Brando (Godfather) extreme.

Obesity Prevalence by Race

Adverse Impact of Obesity

  • Increased Healthcare costs
  • Increased risk for heart disease, diabetes, stroke, pulmonary embolism[2]
  • Lower quality of life (insomnia, chronic fatigue)

CHANGING HABITS

To combat obesity, and its associated chronic diseases, the Expert Report[3] advises,

  • fewer foods high in saturated fat,
  • less sugar,
  • less salt,
  • more fresh fruit and vegetables,
  • one hour of moderate-intensity activity each day.

Recommended  Diet

  • 55 – 75 % carbohydrates
  • Less than 10% sugar
  • 10 – 15% protein
  • 400 g of fruit and veggies
  • between 10 – 30 % of fat (saturated fat less than 10% of this)

Sowo-wui (Ndoli Jowei) : "The Sande woman is not a child!!"

The many reasons for avoidable obesity lie in a mix of poverty, lack of education regarding cause and effect, and the higher cost and lack of availability of healthy food groups. One of the most difficult problems however in combating the obesity fight is the mindset of the individual.  The cultural norms regarding food groups – for example diets high in carbohydrates and salt, set early patterns for increased obesity in later years.  In some cultures a more rotund figure is seen as a mark of prosperity, and good living. The onus is on society to improve the communication of the dangers of an above average sedentary lifestyle, and the myriad disadvantages posed to the individual, especially the children.

Kibbutz, Mende, and Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau’s essay Civil Disobedience,  advocated passive resistance to unjust authority, and strongly influenced the thought and tactics of Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King.[1] On the question of practical living and idealistic aspirations he was on point when he observed that,

“If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; that is where they should be. Now put the foundations under them.”

Applying the idealistic concept of communal living in a practical framework can be fraught with missteps. Many years ago it was enough to start a discussion by either modeling the basic framework on a continuum, or by using a discrete (good/bad) function, but nowadays one can pick a specific point of balance and (very much like enlarging a view on a smartphone by widening one’s fingers) examine the merits or demerits from a sustainable and practical perspective.

The kibbutzim were built on the attempt to create a permanent and institutionalized framework, which would be able to set a pattern of conduct which would successfully handle the implementation of shared values…..The original concept of the kibbutzim was based to a large extent on self-sacrifice of its members for the sake of abstract foundations and not on the cancellation of work, and therefore after the pioneer period the linkage between the kibbutz members decreased, due to the decline in the pioneering spirit and the decline in the importance of the self-sacrifice values.[2]

So one can argue that utopian ideas were incorporated into practical life without going through the period of practical development and flexible adaptation. Ideas which may seem foreign and socialist to a certain degree (equal pay, sharing property, equal standard of living) were attempted, which in the long term did not thrive in the globalization of an individualistic and capitalistic society.

Sowo-wui (Ndoli Jowei) : "The Sande woman is not a child!!"

The Sande (Female society of the Mende , Sierra Leone) used a much more flexible and socially inclusive device to develop their Value – Ritual – Norm (VRN) system.  The most important aspect seemed to be the initial transfer of Values. The head of the Sande lodge is the Sowei, who is in charge of the initiation of young girls and are viewed as the “arbiters and creators of beauty and morality in Mende society.”[3] The Sowei’s mask is referred to as the Sowo-wui or is more commonly known to as the “Mende Mask”. It is through the masked spirit counterpart, Sowo, that the Sowei receives her temporal authority. This is the ritual aspect of this value transference device which then develops into the social norms or rules followed by the community. Again each initiate can aspire to the utopian ideal at their own pace as opposed to hard and fast rules laid down by community leaders.

Sande Society Helmet mask - Brooklyn Museum, 2010

In her book, Radiance from the Waters, Sylvia Boone identifies several Sande (and Mende) social ideals.

Nemahulewe – cleverness, intelligence, use of mind.

Kahu – strength, endurance, stamina

Kpaya – authority, responsiibility

Ndilo – bravery, courage, (the heart can stand the strain).

Malondo – be quiet, be silent, the silence to endure hardship, long suffering

Fulo-Fulo – doing things smartly and quickly

Tonya – Truth

Di – persistence

Pona – to be correct, straight, reliable, doing things properly

Hindawanda – goodness, generosity

But there is more….. the Sande Society has two masks, for while Sowo shows the nobility of human Sowei the counterpart of failure and disgrace belongs to Gonde.

“Mende women have created two masks because it takes both to express fully the realities of the social milieu out of which the Sande mask forms emerge.”[4]


[1] http://www.morning-earth.org/ARTISTNATURALISTS/AN_Thoreau.html

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibbutz

[3] Radiance from the Waters, Sylvia Boone, p 34

[4] Radiance from the Waters, Sylvia Boone, p 39

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